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Abstract

This paper is devoted to the history of the Rusyn newspaper Недьля [Sunday] published from August 1941 to October 1944. The weekly newspaper continued the tradition of the pro-Rusyn “third power” in the social life of the region, which had been dominated by the opposition of Russophiles and Ukrainophiles through the Czechoslovakian era. The changes in the publication were connected to the new Hungarian policy with regard to Subcarpathia and the active role of the Regent’s commissar Miklós Kozma. Considerable positive changes in the work of the newspaper took place after the appointment of the teacher Andrey Kutlan as its editor. In those years, the geographical spread of the readers of this popular Rusyn weekly expanded considerably. In addition to the residents of today’s Transcarpathian oblast of Ukraine and the 36 villages in the regions of Snina and Sobrance in present-day Slovakia, the area included Rusyns from the Serbian provinces of Vojvodina, which in spring 1941 became part of Hungary again. However, brief informational items by local authors and various institutions are of considerable value for researchers of the epoch.

Keywords

Subcarpathia, Rusyn newspaper, Hungarian language policy, Andrey Kutlan

Studia Slavica Hung. 57/2 (2012) 357–365 in pdf

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 Summary

«Rusyn Lexicography of the 21st Century

(The Emergence and Development of Literary Microlanguages)»

This article by a Hungarian Slavist researches the contemporary situation of Rusyn lexicography, a branch of Rusyn studies that has been intensively developed over the last two decades since the collapse of communist regimes and the recognition of distinct Rusyn ethnic communities in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The author provides a general survey of the linguistic dictionaries that have appeared during these years in Yugoslavia, where the first variant of the Rusyn literary microlanguage was codified as early as the 1920s, as well as in Slovakia and Poland, where variants of the literary language were codified in 1995 and 2000 respectively. A different situation developed in Ukraine, where the majority of Carpatho-Rusyns live. Irrespective of the activity and notable achievements of lexicographers, the process of codifying a literary language for the local Rusyns has not been successful primarily for political reasons. The state refuses Rusyns the elemental right to identify as a distinct ethnic group and accordingly, does not support the development of Rusyn studies as a distinct Slavic discipline.

Лингвокультурное пространство современной Европы через призму малых и больших языков. К 70–летию профессора Александра Дмитриевича Дуличенко.  Slavica Tartuensia IX: Тарту, 2011. 252–267.

Slavica Tartuensia IX. pdf

Русинськый дайджест 1939-1944. ІII/2. Кроника. Тексты з ужгородськуй новинкы „Не­дi­ля” 1941-1944 гг. Матеріалы ушорив и спередслово написав Михаил Капраль. Ru­szin sajtószemle 1939-1944 IІI/2. Krónika. Cikkek az ungvári Vasárnap c. lapból 1939–1941. Összeállította és az előszót írta: Káprály Mihály. Studia Ukra­inica et Rusinica Nyíregyháziensia 27. Nyí­regyháza, 2011. – 242 с.

 

Summary

Rusyn Digest 1939-1944 III/2. Chronicle. Articles from the news­paper Ne­d’il’ia [Sunday] published in Uzhhorod 1941-1944. Com­piled and for­war­ded by Mihály Káprály. Studia Ukrainica et Rusi­nica Nyíregyhá­zi­en­sia 27. Nyí­regy­háza, 2011. – 242 p.

Part II of Volume III of the series “Rusyn Digest 1939-1944” includes ar­ticles from the Rusyn newspaper Недiля published between August 1941 and October 1944. The weekly newspaper continued the tradition of the pro-Rusyn “third power” in the social life of the region, which had been domi­na­ted by the opposition of Russophiles and Ukrainophiles through the Czecho­slovakian era. The changes in the publication were connected with the new Hungarian policy in regard to Subcarpathia and the active role of the Re­gent’s commissar Miklós Kozma. After the death of Prime Minister Pál Te­leki in 1941, discussions about the political autonomy of the region effectu­ally ended, but a true cultural revolution took place. In a short time, the “Subcarpathian Scholarly Society,” a prototype of a national academy of sciences, was established, and all problems in the cultural life of the region were quickly and effectively resolved. The decades-long language war in effect ended. Although their influential leaders Andrei Brodii and Shtefan Fentsyk were members of the Hungarian parliament, the Russophiles ulti­mately lost their leadership position. Ivan Haraida’s grammar of the Rusyn language was officially introduced, which helped to utilize the creative po­ten­tial of moderate Ukrainophiles for the good of the people.

Considerable positive changes in the work of the newspaper were con­nec­ted with the appointment of the teacher Andrei Kutlan as editor. During the harsh war years, Kutlan was able to expand and stimulate the network of village correspondents and active readers, and to raise considerably the cir­culation of the Rusyn newspaper for broad strata of the population of Sub­carpathia.

Also expanded in those years was the geographical breadth of the rea­ders of the popular Rusyn weekly. In addition to the residents of today’s Trans­car­pathian oblast of Ukraine and 36 villages in the regions of Snina and So­brance of today’s Slovakia, the area included the Rusyns of the Ser­bian pro­vinces of Vojvodina, which in spring 1941 again became part of Hun­gary.

The greater part of the newspaper Недiля during those years consisted of official texts from the Hungarian telegraph agency. However, brief infor­ma­tional items by local authors and various institutions are of considerable va­lue for researchers of the epoch.

From August 3, 1941 through October 8, 1944, 162 issues of Недiля were published (1941—22 issues; 1942—5l; 1943—49; 1944—40).

 

Резюме

Русинский дайджест 1939—1944 ІІІ/2. Хроника. Тексты из уж­го­родской газеты „Недiля“ 1941-1944 гг. Составитель и ав­тор пре­дисловия Миха­ил Капраль. Stu­dia Ukra­inica et Ru­si­ni­ca Nyí­regyháziensia 27. Nyíregyháza, 2011. – 242 с.

Во второй части третьего тома серии „Русинский дайджест 1939-1944“ представлены информационные тексты из ужгород­ской газеты в период с августа 1941 до октября 1944 года. Еже­не­дельная газета про­должила традиции органа „тре­тьей“, собственно прору­синской, силы в общественной жизни края. Изменения в работе издания бы­ли связаны с новой венгерской политикой по отноше­нию к Подкарпатью и активной позицией регентского комисса­ра Микловша Козмы. После смерти пре­мьера Па­ла Телеки фак­тически закончились дискуссии о политической ав­то­но­мии края, но случилась настоящая культурная революция. За ко­рот­кое время было организовано „Подкарпатское Об­щество На­укъ”, прообраз национальной академии наук; быстро и ве­сь­ма результативно решались все проблемы в культурной жизни края. Фактически за­кон­чилась мно­голетняя языковая война. Ру­софилы, не смотря на влия­тель­ных во­ж­дей, членов парламента Венгрии Андрея Бро­дия и Сте­фана Фенцика, как оказалось впоследствии, навсегда, утра­тили лидер­ские позиции. Oфици­аль­но была введена грамматика русинского языка Ива­на Гарай­ды, характер которой помог использовать на благо народа твор­ческий потенциал умеренных укра­и­но­филов.

Значительные позитивные изменения в работе газеты бы­ли свя­за­ны с назначением редактором народного учителя Андрея Кут­лана ко­то­рый сумел в суровые военные го­ды расширить и акти­визировать сеть селькоров и активных читателей, значительно поднять тираж ру­син­ской газеты для широких слоев населения Подкарпатья.

Расширилась и география читателей популярного русинского еже­недельника в те годы, которую наряду с жителями сегодняшней За­кар­патской области Украины и 36 населенных пунктов округов Снина и Со­бранце нынешней Словакии дополнили русины сербской провинции Вое­во­ди­на, которая весной 1941 года вновь вошла в состав Венгрии.

Большую часть газеты „Недiля“ тех лет составляли оффи­ци­аль­ные тексты Вен­гер­ского телеграфного агентства, однако краткие ин­фор­ма­ци­онные за­мет­ки местных авторов и различных институций пред­ставляют значи­тель­ную ценность для иссле­дователей эпохи.

С 3 августа 1941 по 8 октября 1944 года, по данным составителя на­с­тоящего издания, вы­шло 162 номера газеты „Недiля“ (1941 – 22; 1942 – 51; 1943 – 49; 1944 – 40 номеров).

 In memoriam István Ud­va­ri (1950–2005). A 2010. május 25–26-i nyíregyházi emlékkonferencia anyaga. Материалы конференции памяти Иштвана Удвари (Ниредьxаза, 25–26 мая 2010 г.). Szerkesztette Zoltán András.

 Под редакцией Анд­раша Золтана. Studia Ukra­inica et Rusinica Nyíregyháziensia 28. Nyíregyháza, 2011. 15-26.

 

 

Иштван Удвари: становление и достижения ученого и гражданина in pdf.

Rusínsky jazyk v Maďarsku

Rusínsky jazyk v Mad’arsku. Papp Anna Mária (szerk.): Kevésbé használt nyelvek helyzete a Vi­se­g­rádi Négyek országaiban. Budapest: OIK, 2010. 88-94.

 

 

Abstract

The paper presents the historical background of the Rusyn language and community. The author gives a detailed insight in the linguistic situation of Rusyn minority beginning from the 1990s. After the fall of the communist regime, as it happened in the neighbouring Central-European countries, have started the ethnic revival of Rusyns. The author analyzes the linguistic characteristics of periodicals and underlines the importance of Rusynian studies. The author claims that due to the lack of linguistic norms the written culture of the Rusynian community is undeveloped. There is an urgent need for the codification of the literary language of Rusyns living in Hungary

Науковий і мистецький світ Федора Потушняка: Матеріали міжнародної наукової конфе­ре­н­ції, присвяченої 100-річчю від дня народження видатного українського письменника і вченого / Упо­ряд­ник Ігор Ліхтей. – Ужгород: Ліра, 2010. 143-160.

Slavia. Ročník 79. Praha, 2010. zešit 2. 208-213.